The Firoozbakht Conjecture
This conjecture was first stated by the mathematician
Farideh Firoozbakht from the University of Isfahan.
It appeared in print in The Little Book of Bigger Primes by Paulo Ribenboim [3, page 185].
The Firoozbakht conjecture is one of the strongest upper bounds for prime gaps
than the Cramér and Shanks conjectures.
(Cramér predicted that the gaps near p are at most about as large as ln²p;
moreover, Shanks  conjectured the asymptotic equality g
for maximal prime gaps g.)
The Firoozbakht conjecture.
Let pk be the k-th prime, then the sequence
(pk)1/k is strictly decreasing.
(pk)k+1 > (pk+1)k;
pk+1 < pk1+1/k;
ln pk+1 − ln pk.
As of 2019, a rigorous proof of the conjecture is not known nor do we have any counterexamples.
The conjecture is
true for all primes pk up to 264
The conjecture implies:
pk+1 − pk
< ln²pk − ln pk − 1
for k > 9 [2, Theorem 1].
Two ways to verify the Firoozbakht conjecture for all pk < 264:
• Using "safe bounds" and the table of first-occurrence prime gaps; see .
• Using the sufficient condition below and the table of maximal prime gaps; see [2, Remark (i) on page 5].
Sufficient condition for the Firoozbakht conjecture:
If pk+1 − pk
< ln²pk − ln pk − 1.17
for all k > 9,
then Firoozbakht’s conjecture is true [2, Theorem 3].
Because ln²pk − ln pk − 1.17
is an increasing function of pk, it is enough to check this condition
only for maximal prime gaps, starting with the 5th maximal gap, i.e. for
pk = A002386(n) ≥ 89.
(The first four maximal gaps correspond to k ≤ 9.)
Checking the conjecture for small primes pk ≤ 89 is easy with the
 A. Kourbatov,
Verification of the Firoozbakht conjecture for primes up to four quintillion,
Int. Math. Forum 10 (2015), 283-288. arXiv:1503.01744
 A. Kourbatov,
Upper bounds for prime gaps related to Firoozbakht’s conjecture,
Journal of Integer Sequences 18 (2015), Article 15.11.2. arXiv:1506.03042
 P. Ribenboim, The Little Book of Bigger Primes, New York, Springer, 2004.
 D. Shanks, On maximal gaps between successive primes,
Math. Comp. 18 (88) (1964), 646-651.
Table: A partial computational check of the Firoozbakht conjecture.
verification up to 1000000 and
verification up to 1019 via safe bounds.)
k p p1/k OK/fail Alternative formulation:
• Verification for primes up to one million (106).
• Verification for primes up to ten quintillion (1019).
• Firoozbakht conjecture vs Cramér conjecture.